Contro

Il contenuto di questa sezione è stato – per praticità – distribuito in diversi “articoli”, raggruppati per argomento: il primo argomento riguarda gli aspetti scientifici, il secondo gli aspetti etici. Infine, riportiamo alcuni ulteriori contenuti di approfondimento.

In calce a questa pagina, si trovano tutti i riferimenti bibliografici citati e numerati progressivamente nei vari articoli. Buona lettura!

Aspetti scientifici (*)

(*) Si ringrazia per il prezioso contributo il professor William B. Carey, dottore in Medicina, Professore clinico di Pediatria presso la Scuola di Medicina dell’Università della Pennsylvania, direttore della Divisione di Pediatria Comportamentale di Pediatria Generale dell’Ospedale Pediatrico di Philadelphia.
Informazioni più approfondite potranno venire richieste al nostro Comitato Scientifico comitatoscientifico @ giulemanidaibambini.org

Aspetti etici (**)

(**)Informazioni più approfondite potranno venire richieste al nostro Comitato Etico comitatoetico @ giulemanidaibambini.org

Scheda di ulteriore approfondimento sull’ADHD

Riferimenti bibliografici

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6. Baughman FA (invited participant). Quote from videotape, NIH, Consensus Conference on ADHD, November 16, 1998.

7. Final Statement of the Panel of the NIH, Consensus Conference on ADHD, November 18, 1998.

8. Achenbach TM, Howell CT, McCounaghy CH, Stanger C. Six year predictors of problems in a national sample of children and youth: cross-informant syndromes. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1995;34:336-47

9. Levy E, Hay D, McStephen M, Wood C, Waldman. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a category or a continuum? Genetics analysis of a large scale twin study. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1997;36:737-44

10. Chess S, Thomas A. Temperament theory and practice. New York: BrunnerMazel, 1996

11. Carey WB, McDevitt S. Coping with children’s temperament. A guide for professionals. New York: Basic Books, 1995

12. Thomas A, Chess A. Temperament and Development. New York: Brunner-Mazel, 1977

13. Thomas A, Chess A, Birch H. Temperament and behaviour disorders in children. New York: University Press, 1968

14. Keogh BK. Applying temperament research to school. In: Kohnstamm GA, Bates JE, Rothbart MK (eds). Temperament in childhood. New York: Wiley, 1989

15. Martin RP. Activity level, distractibility and persistence: critical characteristics in early schooling. In: Kohnstamm GA, Bates JE, Rothbart MK (eds). Temperament in childhood. New York: Wiley, 1989

16. Maziade M. Should adverse temperament matter to the clinician? An empirically based answer. In: Kohnstamm GA, Bates JE, Rothbart MK (eds).

Temperament in childhood. New York: Wiley, 1989

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Child Psychiatry and Human Development 1994;25,13-29

18. Woodward L, Dowdney L, Taylor F. Child and family factors influencing the clinical referral of children with hyperactivity:a research note. J of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1997;38:479-85

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I. Examination of DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a count wide sample. J of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1998;19:162-8

20. Shaywitz B, Fletcher J, Shaywitz S. Defining and classifying learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J of Child Neurology 1995;10:S50-S57

21. Tannock R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: advances in cognitive, neurobiological and genetic research. J of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1998;39:65-9

22. Max J, Arndt S, Castillo C, Bokura H, Robin D, Lindgren S, Smith W, Sato Y, Mattheis P.

Attention deficit hyperactivity symptomatology after traumatic brain injury: a prospective study. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1998;37:841-7

23. Hertzig ME. Temperament and neurological status. In: Rutter M (ed). Developmental Neuropsychiatry. New York: Guilford Press, 1983

24. Rutter M. Issues and prospects in developmental neuropsychiatry. In: Rutter M (ed).

Developmental Neuropsychiatry. New York: Guilford Press, 1983b

25. Peterson BS. Neuroimaging in child and adolescent neuropsychiatric disorders. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1995;34:1560-76

26. Zametkin A, Ernst I, Silver R. Laboratory and diagnostic testing in child and adolescent psychiatry: a review of the past 10 years. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1998;37:464-72

27. Fox N, Rubin K, Calkins S, Marshall T, Coplan P, Porges S, Long J, Stewart S. Frontal activation asymmetry and social competence at four years of age. Child Development 1995; 66:1770-84

28. Sherman D, Iacono W, McGue M. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder dimensions: a twin study of inattention and impulsivity-hyperactivity. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1997;36:745-53

29. Plomin R, Owen M, McGuffin P. The genetic basis of complex human behaviors. Science 1994;264:1733-9

30. Mellins CA, Gatz M, Baker L. Children’s methods of coping with stress: a twin study of genetic and environmental influences. J of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1996;37:721-30

31. Diller LH. Running on Ritalin. A physician reflects on children, society and performance in a pill. New York: Bantam Books, 1998

32. Reid R, Maag J, Vasa S. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a disability category: a critique. Exceptional Children 1993;60:198-214

33. Maziade M. Temperament research and practical implications for clinicians. In: Carey WB, McDevitt SC (eds). Prevention and early intervention. New York: Brunner-Mazel, 1994

34. Chess S, Thomas A. Origins and evolution of behaviour disorders from infancy to early adult life.

New York: Brunner-Mazel, 1984

35. Levine MD. Educational care. Cambridge: Educators Publishing, 1994

36. Tizard B, Hodges J. The effect of early institutional rearing and development of eight year old children. J of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1978;19:99-118

37. Taylor E. Syndromes of attention deficit and overactivity. In: Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L (eds). Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3rdr ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1994

38. Biederman J, Milberger S, Faraone S, Kiely K, Guite J, Mick E, Ablon J, Warburton R, Reed E, Davis S. Impact of adversity on functioning and comorbidity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1995;34:1495-503

39. Scahill L, Schwab-Stone M, Merikangas K, Leckman J, Zhang H, Kasl S. Psychosocial and clinical correlates of ADHD in a community sample of school aged children. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1999;38:976-84

40. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed.

Washington, DC, 1994

41. Angold A, Erkanli A, Egger HL, Costello EJ. Stimulant treatment for children: a community perspective. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2000;39:975-84

42. Wasserman R, Kelleher K, Bocian A, Baker A, Childs G, Indacochea F, Stulp C, Gardner W.

Identification of attentional and hyperactivity problems in primary care:a report from pediatric research in office settings and the ambulatory sentinel practice network. Pediatrics 1999;103:E38

43. Bussing R, Schuhmann E, Belin T, Widawski M, Perwien A. Diagnostic utility of two commonly used ADHD screening measures among special education students. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1998:37:74-82

44. Kuperman S, Johnson B, Arndt S, Wolraich M. Quantitative EEG differences in a non clinical sample of children with ADHD and undifferentiated ADD. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1996;35:1009-17

45. Reid R, Maag J. How many fidgets in a pretty much: a critique of behaviour rating scales for identifying students with ADHD. J of School Psychology 1994;32:339-54

46. Carey WB, McDevitt SC, Baker D. Differentiating minimal brain dysfunction and temperament. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 1979;21:765-72

47. Billman J, McDevitt S. TACTIC: a measure of temperament, attention, conduct, and emotion for 2-6 years old children in out of home settings.

Paper presented at the twelfth Occasional Temperament Conference. Philadelphia, 1998

48. Rutter M. Behavioral studies: questions and findings on the concept of a distinctive syndrome. In: Rutter M (ed). Developmental Neuropsychiatry. New York: Guilford Press, 1983a

49. Barkley R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment.

Scientific American 1998;279:66-71

50. McDevitt SC, Carey WB. The measurement of temperament in 3-7 year old children. J of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1978;19:245-53

51. Carey WB. The relationship between low adaptability and inattention. Unpublished data, 1998

52. Levine MD. Attention and dysfunctions of attention. In: Levine MD, Carey WB, Crocker AC (eds). Developmental behavioral pediatrics 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1999

53. Denckla MB. Biological correlates of learning and attention: what is relevant to learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? J of Developmental and Behavioral. Pediatrics 1996; 17:114-9

54. Jensen P, Mrazek D, Knapp P, Steinberg L, Pfeffer C, Schowalter J, Shapiro T. Evolution and revolution in child psychiatry: ADHD as a disorder of adaptation. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1997;36:1672-9

55. Reid R. Three faces of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J of Child and Family Studies 1996;5:249-65

56. Zito J, Safer D, dosReis S, Gardner J, Boles M, Linch F. Trends in prescribing of psychotropic medications to preschoolers. J of American Medical Association 2000;283:1025-30

57. Bernstein G, Carroll M, Crosby R, Perwien A, Go F, Benowitz N. Caffeine effects on learning, performance and anxiety in normal school aged children. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1994;33:407-15

58. Rapoport J, Buchsbaum M, Zahn T, Weingartner H, Ludlow C, Mikkelsen E.

Dextroamphetamine: cognitive and behavioral effects on normal prepubertal boys. J of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1978;190:560-3

59. Rapoport J, Buchsbaum M, Weingartner H, Zahn T, Ludlow C, Mikkelsen F. Dextroamphetamine: its cognitive and behavioral effects in normal and hyperactive boys and normal man. Archives of General Psychiatry 1980;37:933-43

60. Carey WB. What the multimodal treatment study of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder did and did not say about the use of methylphenidate for attention deficits. Pediatrics 2000;105:863-4

61. T. Szasz – Il mito della malattia mentale – riedito da Spirali – Novembre, 2003.

62. Heinrik R. Wulff, Stig Andur Pedersen, Raben Rosenberg – 1986, 1990 – Blackwell Scientific Publications ; Ed italiana “Filosofia della medicina” 1995 – Raffaello Cortina Editore.

63. Giorgio Antonucci – Il pregiudizio psichiatrico – Eleuthera, 1989.

64. T. Szasz – Insanity – Syracuse University Press – 1997.

65. J. R. Rees “Strategic plane for mental health” – Mental Health, vol. 1, N° 4, October, 1940, pag. 103 – 106.

66. The William Alanson White Memorial Lectures. Second Series in: Psychiatry, Journal of the Biology and Pathology of International Relations. Vol. 9, # 1, February, 1946.

67. Ideology of Death, Why the Holocaust Happened in Germany.; John Weiss, p.105-106.

68. Stefan Kuhl; The Nazi Connection; Oxford University Press; 1994, p.21-22.

69. Dr. Michael Berenbaum,The World Must Know, The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1993, p.64.

70. Thomas Roder, Volker Kubillus, Anthony Burwell “Psychiatrists – the Men Behind Hitler” Freedom Publishing, p. 80 – 81.

71. PM Daily, Created Nazi Science of Murder: Meet ‘Gentle” Prof. Rudin, Theorist of ‘Aryanism’, Tuesday, Aug. 21, 1945, p.5.

72. 1990 – Winter Newsletter; National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression.

73. The Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 19, No.2, 1945, p.255.

74. Eugenics Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1954, The Role of the American Eugenics Society, p.1-3.

75. Ibidem.

76. Social Biology, Vol. 18, 1971, A Foundation for Informed Eugenics, Irving I. Gottesman and Linda Erlenmeyer-Kimling, p. S1 and S7.

77. The Child at Risk for Major Psychiatric Illness, Clarice. J. Kestenbaum, in The American Handbook of Psychiatry, 1981, p. 166; vedi anche: Erlenmeyer-Kimling, Schizophrenia: A Bag of Dilemmas, in Social Biology, Vol. 25, No. 2 1976, p. 133.

78. - “Tired? Pop your pal’s ritalin” New York Post, Sun. 28 May 2000 – Christine Langdon

“DEA evidence Ritalin n° 2 drug illegally sold in schools” Alliance for Human Research protection, Sep. 30, 2002

The Observer – UK News – Sun. May 4, 2003.

79. “Bush’s bro: My son was a victim of school Rx – Readin’, ‘ritin’ & RITALIN” – New York Post, Wednesday, August 14 , 2002

80. (elenco aggiornato al gennaio 2003)
- Colorado State – Board of Education Resolution – 11/11/99
- National Black Caucus of State Legislators – 12/03/99
- Georgia R1079 – 05/01/00
- Texas State – Board of Education Resolution – 11/03/00
- Washington HB 2912 – 26/03/00
- Connecticut AB 5701 – 28/06/01
- Hawaii SC Resolution 92 – 12/04/01
- Minnesota HB 478 – 05/01
- North Carolina SB 542 – 25/05/01
- Utah HB 170 – 15/03/01
- Illinois – SB1718 – 16/07/02
- Virginia – HB 90 – 01/04/02
- National – NFWL (National Foundation of Women Legislators) Resolution – 25/11/02
- Texas – HB 320 – 20/12/02
- Alaska – SB 5 – introduced and pre filed, not assigned to a committee yet -10/01/03
- Arizona – HB 2007 – assigned to House Rules Committee in January 2003
- Arizona – SB 1034 – assigned to House Rules Committee in January 2003
- Colorado – HB 1172 – - assigned to Senate Rules Committee in January 2003
- Hawaii – HB 272 – SB 999 – HB 273 – SB 998 – HB 274 – SB 981 – HB 275 – SB 982 - All passed first reading 21/01/03
- Indiana – HB 1974 – to House Committee on Education – 25/01/03
- Kentucky – HJR 67 – introduced 10/01/03
- Massachusetts – SB 674 – to Joint Committee on Health Care – 01/01/03
- Mississippi – HB 94 – HB 168 – to Committee on Education and Health – 07/01/03
- New Hampshire – HB 378 – to Committee on Education – 09/01/03
- Vermont – SB 30 – to Senate Committee on Education – 09/01/03
- West Virginia – SB 122 – HB 2111 – to Senate Committee on Education – 10/01/03

81. “House Oks Ban on Forcing Kid’s Medication” by Elisabeth Wolfe – Associated Press, Mon. May, 26, 2003.

82. The truth behind Ritalin – http://www.ritalindeath.com/truth.html , vedi anche “Talking back to Ritalin”, Peter Breggin – Common Courage Press, 1998.

83. Nell’Ottobre 2000 il CUF ha invitato l’azienda produttrice del metilfenidato ad avviare le procedure per la registrazione sul mercato italiano. Attualmente il farmaco viene utilizzato in diversi centri a scopo sperimentale, sottoponendo adolescenti ed anche bambini in tenera età al trattamento

84. Vedasi il Nuovo testo unificato della proposta di legge Burani Procaccini – testo unico del relatore – Marzo 2003 – attualmente in esame alla Commissione Affari Sociali della Camera dei Deputati all’art. 14, che recita:
a) Per l’individuazione precoce delle situazioni di rischio psicopatologico e dei disturbi psichici, il Ministro della salute, con proprio decreto, stabilisce le modalità di realizzazione di specifici programmi atti alla diffusione di appropriati e soddisfacenti interventi presso le scuole, ad iniziare da quelle materne. I programmi devono prevedere procedure di screening e preparazione degli insegnanti.
b) Il Ministero della salute, con proprio decreto, stabilisce la realizzazione di programmi informativi per la popolazione al fine di ridurre e superare i pregiudizi dello stigma, promuove, inoltre programmi di formazione per medici di medicina generale nel settore della salute mentale e programmi di ricerca per la diagnosi precoce.


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